• Toe, Camber & Caster..... What are they?

  • Toe

    Toe is a measurement which applies to both the front and rear axles, it is the measure used to determine the position of the wheels in relation to the body of the car.

    Looking at the car from above, imagine lines through the middle of the wheels in the direction of travel.

  • Toe In

    This occurs when the front of the wheels point towards the car

  • Toe Out

    This occurs when the front of the wheels point away from the car

    • Straight line stability is improved by toeing in
    • Too much will wear out the inner edges of the tyre through scrubbing
    • Makes changes of direction quicker
    • Gives less stability
    • Too much will wear out the outer edges of the tyre through scrubbing
  • Camber

    Camber is the angle of the wheels relative to the surface of the road when looking at the car from the front or rear

  • Negative Camber

    This occurs when the top of the wheels point in towards the car

  • Positive Camber

    This occurs when the top of the wheels point away from the car

    • Improves grip when cornering
    • Too much will reduce straight line grip under braking, and will wear the inside of the tyre
    • In moderation this results in longer bearing life, less likely sudden load failure, and as a side benefit, easier steering. 
    • Excessive positive camber wears the outside of the tyre and can cause wear to suspension parts such as wheel bearings and spindles.
  • Caster

    Caster only applies to the front wheels and is defined as the angle created by the steerings pivot point from the front to the back of the vehicle when viewed from the side

  • Negative Caster

    If the pivot axis is tilted forward (that is, the top pivot is positioned farther forward than the bottom pivot), then the caster is Negative

  • Positive Caster

    If the pivot axis is tilted backward (that is, the top pivot is positioned farther rearward than the bottom pivot), then the caster is Positive

    • Too much negative caster increases the steering effort, weight and feel at the expense of self-centering
    • Provides good self-centering of the steering, allowing the car to travel in a straight line without the constant holding of the wheel